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Attitudes and job satisfaction

Attitudes and job satisfaction

13 Feb 2019 15:14

 Managing and Organisational Behaviour 

A Research on "Employee attitudes and job satisfaction in the organization" 


Research by: Nabaraj Giri
Masters of Business Administration (MBA)
University of Northampton (UoN), UK

Contents

Introduction. 1

Attitude and job satisfaction. 2

Attitudes. 2

Job Satisfaction in the workplace. 3

Job Involvement and Psychological Empowerment. 4

Organizational Commitment. 4

Perceived Organizational Support. 5

Linking Motivation with attitudes and job satisfaction. 5

Motivation Theorists. 6

Maslow's Need Theories. 7

Adam's Equity Theory: 7

Herzberg's Job Design Model: 8

Vroom's Expectancy theory: 8

Hackman and Oldham's job characteristics model: 8

Conclusion. 10

References. 11

 

 

 

Introduction

Motivation is an important factor of success of the organization (Nohana et al., 2008), Furthermore, worker's job satisfaction paly the significance role in the organization success and productivity (De Vita, 2013). So that, manager should know the how to satisfy and motivate workers in order to effective performance and productivity of the organization (Greene, 2008).

First part of this assessment reviews the link among attitude and job satisfaction with the motivation in the organization.  This paper demonstrates the influences of attitude and job satisfaction in the motivation, implementing the various motivational models or theories (Latham & Cocke, 1968).  This paper discusses the how to attitude and job satisfaction related with the employee's motivation in the organization and its behavior.

An employee attitude towards work directly related to job satisfaction and motivation (Naz & Irshad, 2011). A research of (Harvard University) originate that when an individual gets a promotion or a job, 85% of the time it is because of worker's attitude, and only 15% of the time because of knowledge and intelligence of precise facts and figures (Jackson, 2002). Dealing with employee's attitude may consequence in strike, poor product shabby customer and quality, low performance, absences, employee's turnover and work slowdowns (Jackson, 2002).

Unmoving, there are numerous typical influences rotating around attitudes which affect work performance together with, organizational commitment, job satisfaction; personality traits, salary, age, education levels and marital status (Naz & Irshad, 2011). Herzberg's Two Factors Theory, Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs, Social information Procession, Expectancy Theory, Genetic Theory of Job Satisfaction and Opponent Process Theory, (Naz & Irshad, 2011). According to the Naz & Irshad (2011) there are several theories of attitudes and job satisfaction that are still being investigating to identify the the facts related to the attitude and job satisfaction. 

Attitude and job satisfaction

Attitudes

An attitude is defined as an evaluative judgement, unfavorable or favorable feelings towards people, objects and events (Judge & Robbins, 2015; Sylay & Gok, 2010; Freedman, 1997; Ajzen & Koballa, 1998).  According to the academician's study attitudes have targeted on three key portions, behavior, affect and cognition (Judge & Robbins, 2015; Harry, 1997). Judge & Robbins (2015) argued that the cognition, behavior and affect are hard to distinct because individuals have a tendency to think one outcomes in the connection of other.

Recognizing the distinct components of attitude, the cognitive component is a belief element, whereas the affective targeted on emotions and feelings of the employee towards organization (Judge & Robbins, 2015).  Festinger (1957) suggested that the behavioral part of attitudes only concern about meeting an objective to act in specific way. Judge & Robbins (2015) mentioned it is vital for academics and organizations to know how complicated attitudes can be and how carefully linked these three elements are understanding organization behavior, organization must realize that how much they treat employee's shapes and effects on their view to the organization and their role and behavior in the industries failure or success (Judge & Robbins, 2015).

In the workplace attitude assist to evaluate the worker's positive and negative feeling of their working environment (Eagly and Chiken, 1998). Various studies in organization behavior demonstrated the three major working attitudes for example: organizational commitment, job involvement and job satisfaction (Pandey & Monynihan, 2013).  Job involvement is an important factor which a worker psychologically recognizes their work and value their outcomes (Boal & Balu, 1987). Job satisfaction is one of the major topic of this assessment so it will be discussing in another chapter. Job commitment is when workers emotional commitment with the organization and its values and goals (Aydin et al, 1991).

Job Satisfaction in the workplace

Job satisfaction is calm of the whole attitudes, perception and beliefs that directly related employee's working environment (Marryat, 1848 and Ready, 1841).  When a worker express satisfaction with her/his work, he/she is confirming that significant wants are being satisfied/fulfilled. Since, past few decades the expectations of both organization and workers have increased. Companies are demanding high qualifications and skills while workers are looking for more from their work (Sander and Rath, 2016). Therefore, job satisfaction plays very significant roles in a worker and it has become significant for the success of the organization (Spector 1997 & Vita, 2013; Alegre et al, 2016).     

Different kinds of factors can impact on workers satisfactions. According to the Judge & Hurst (2007) company whose workers possess a high degree of job satisfaction will have comparatively low stress, absenteeism and turnover. Studies also define that a high link exists among job satisfaction and organizational commitment.  Turnover and absenteeism have consistently been associated with job satisfaction. Though, factors other than job satisfaction affect to turnover, which include cash requirements, availability of alternative jobs and feelings of duty to the worker (Marryat, 1848 and Ready, 1841). Christy & Mullins (2013) stated that factors such social factors, individual factors, cultural factors, environmental factors and organizational factors affect a worker's job satisfaction.

As mentioned in the different theoretical models of job satisfaction, it can be clear that how workers may feel good and satisfied with their occupation or work (Greenberg, 2013).   The dispositional model of job satisfactions stated that job satisfaction is main portion which is possessed by workers, even they do many work over time (Ilies & Judge, 2010).    Furthermore, the value theory of the job satisfaction describes job satisfaction can came from different factors a worker reflects as an important (Ilies & Judge, 2010).  Job satisfaction theory social information processing models describes a worker's satisfaction is related on the behavior and attitudes of the employees in the workplace (Ilies & Judge, 2010).  

 

 

Job Involvement and Psychological Empowerment  

According to the Judge & Robbins (2015) Job involvement emphasis on appraising the level of that peoples recognize with their skills and work while also determining their performance individual's performance as a valued element of specific value (Judge & Robbins, 2015).

Nowadays, more national and international companies like Google gives their workers more freedom. According to case study by Cheshnotes (2018) Google has nap pods workers who are permitted to sleep to be more creative and also for the Involvement & Psychological Empowerment. 

Organizational Commitment

 As mentioned by the Judge & Robbins (2015) Organization commitment define how well a worker recognizes her or himself as a participant in a company and her or his accountabilities as an outcome of that addon. According to the Allan & Mayer (2001) three kinds of job commitment which are, normative commitment, affective commitment and contrivance commitment. Organization commitment shows how well a worker upholds and understands the companies' goals in order to persist lively and understand the prosper (Judge & Robbins, 2015).  Judge & Robbins (2015) argued that the new workers have the sturdiest connection among performance and commitment. Nevertheless, workers can be committed and unhappy in their job. Notwithstanding this conclusion, Okpara (1996) argued a positive relationship among organization commitment and job satisfaction (Naz & Irshad, 2011).

Perceived Organizational Support 

According to the author and write Ren-Tao (2011) job satisfaction is liked with apparent organizational support, task performance and organizational citizenship behavior (OCP). So as to improve workers skills and performance, organizations implement regulations and policies, procedures (Ren-Tao, 2011).

This can be exposed over giving financial enticements, undertaking workers problems, growing occupation development chances, and reducing office wrong judgement (Ren-Tao, 2011).  Workers who perceive confident encouragement from their organizations are much more probable to prove mutuality through OCP (Ren-Tao, 2011). As mentioned by the Ren-Tao (2011) he concludes that the workers value a good relationship contributes and benefits among the workers and organization are equally exchanged.

Linking Motivation with attitudes and job satisfaction

As stated by Hellreiger (2004) motivation represents the forces working on or within a person that purpose the character to behave in a particular, goal-directed manner. it's far the desire to do the great feasible activity or to exert the most effort to perform allocated job (Gomez, 2004).

According to the text book "Concept and Skill Building" Certo (2004) motivating workers requires workers to study the worker's monetary, psychological and physical needs, because employees are motivated by a different item such as extrinsic and intrinsic rewards. Intrinsic reward is the enjoyable emotion which worker get from doing a job in the time of extrinsic recompense is something provided to a person by someone else as gratitude for doing good work which contains promotions, commendations and salary increase (Certo, 2004).

In the workplace motivation is affected by various factors such as each worker has her or his own individuality. Individuals different in their attitudes, personal needs, values and interest thus, making obvious that motivation might be appreciated in a different way by individually. The organization's features and culture of every job also identify best method should be taken to inspire (Hellreiger, 2004). According Certo (2004) motivational theorists have discovered various factors of motivation which will explore further in this assessment.

Many motivational theorists accept that motivation is includes in employee performance of all reactions to be same. Podnoroff (2004) raised a question whether motivation is main or secondary influence factor on employee's behavior. Particularly, variation in workers behavior is best discussed by values of environmental effects, memory, perception, cognitive development, explanatory styles are select to motivation most vital.

According to the Podnoroff (2004) there are many sources of motivational desire, desires being anything which is essential, useful. Academics, have spent several years of investigation of motivation and after the study they have identified several sources of motivational needs factors some are shown below.

Cognitive: Decision-making and Problem-solving abilities.

Spiritual: Identifying one's determination in life.

Affective: Relates to self-esteem (enhance the good emotions and reduce the bad emotions).

Behavioral: Response to motivation.

Biological: Basic needs (eg. Foods and water) touch and taste (Huitt, 2001).

Social: The need to communicate with different personality.

Motivation Theorists

There are six main tactics that have leading to the latest sympathetic of motivation and its outcomes are discussed below.

Maslow's Need Theories: As states by Maslow, (Wilson, 2005) worker have five stages of desire; safety, physiological, social self-actualizing and ego. The lower level desire has to be satisfy before higher level of desire would motivate workers.

This theory talks about the satisfaction of an internal state, which makes few results appear attractive.  It is most straightforward and foundation theory of the motivation and it basically talks about needs and there three major theory of needs: Alderfer’s ER Model, Maslow’s Pyrami, Hierarchy of Needs, McClelland’s Achievement Motivation Theory (Bunce and Bond, 2003; Barling et al., 2003).

The theorists focus on his theory that the worker work to fulfil the basic desire of the life. These desires are new to all peoples. The basic desire is the psychological desire which are vital to sustain life that are water, food, and air. Th another stag is based on safety. Maslow identified that the all the individuals have desire to feel safe and secure. The third stage of desire contain the group of people and to have prestige of family and friends. The fourth stage of desire is Approval. These contain the individual emotions and feelings of success, recognition and self-worth. The sixth level of needs includes Self-Actualization. In this stage desire are based but not on private but on the desire of others (Bruce, 1999).    

The main assumption of this theories is once a need has been met the motivation, the importance of meeting another need will decrease. This theory talks about the lower level of need must be fulfilled before higher level of needs can be fulfilled. The lower levels of needs also can be describing Physiological needs, Deficiency needs, affiliation and security.   Maslow fingered that if these needs were not met person unable to be develop into healthy induvial, it is also known as Growth needs (Hellreigel, 2004).

Adam's Equity Theory: This theory talks about equalist among the people. This theory also encourages to treats well to the employee which adds value to motivate to the employee that mean the attitudes and behavior of the organization should be equal which motivates to employee to be more productive (Bunce and Bond, 2003; Barling et al., 2003).  

Herzberg's Job Design Model: This theory mostly used in business in the real world. It's separate the hygiene factors from motivation and it is linked to dissatisfaction and pain-avoidance when employees are not satisfying in the organization, according to Herberg the organization should identify the factors of dissatisfaction in the organization, and try to overcome it, that motivate to the employee to be more committed to the organization and job (Bunce and Bond, 2003; Barling et al., 2003).

Vroom's Expectancy theory: This theory makes separate the effort from performance and results. It works on perceptions, and attitudes which behavior is the outcome of aware choice between substitutions meant to exploiting happiness and avoiding pain. Vroom mentioned that the pain of employee should be identifies and convert it into the happiness which leads to the motivation to the workers (Bunce and Bond, 2003; Barling et al., 2003).

Hackman and Oldham's job characteristics model: It focuses on the task itself and introduces main job characteristics such as (Task Identity, Skill Variety, Autonomy, Task Significance, Feedback etc.)  which impacts on the three psychological states (Responsibility, Knowledge of outcomes and Meaningfulness). It influences work outcomes and motivation. According to the Hackman and Oldham the features of employee's in the organization should be identifies and give better feedback and appreciation which really help to be more motivate to the employee  (Bunce and Bond, 2003; Barling et al., 2003). 

Many theoretical models suggest that the positive link between attitude, job satisfaction and motivation. According to the Oldman & Hackman (1975) job characteristics theory which is based on five separate factors such as task significance, task identity, and skill verity. However, the outcomes of this study the relationship between attitude, motivation and job satisfaction is very vital for the organization (Bunce and Bond, 2003; Barling et al., 2003).    

Discussing on those above theory I found that more important and primary theory is Maslow (Wilson, 2005) because it takes about basic needs and needs. In every origination will have expectation from employee and employee also will have more expectation from organization i.e. more than organization. So, in any organization main motivational factors of employee is the fulfillment of basic/desire need which are very important for the employee. If the employee cannot fulfill the need working on the particular organization his or her attitude might be different which leads to disaffection and demotivation to the employee. If the desire needs of employee met it will leads to good attitudes and job satisfaction (Bruce, 1999).   

 

 

 

Conclusion

In conclusion we can say that attitudes, job satisfaction and motivation are interrelated factors in the organization those firstly discussed on separate and find out the best alternatives of attitudes and job satisfaction linking to the motivation.   According to the academician (Jackson, Alberti, & Snipes, 2014; Judge & Robbins, 2015) the attitudes is main influencing factors for the job satisfaction. If the workers have positive attitude he or she can influence organization and give the commitment to work which will help to job satisfaction in the organization. The dissimilar influences and theories that influences it, but one thing is for definite and that is motivated workers are desirable for organizational long-term existence.

Finally, this study concludes the influences of attitude and job satisfaction on worker's motivation, using the the different theory of motivation. This paper clearly state that a manager should understand the worker's motivation factors in the workplace. In order to run well-organized company manager should understand the implementation of all changes such as the Goal-Setting theory to a company will have a vital on the job satisfaction, attitude and motivation of workers (Christy & Mullins, 2011).  In that both kinds of rewards linked differently to job satisfaction for different kinds of persons. According to the discrepancy model (Lawler and Porter, 1968) and equity theory (Adams, 1965) and factor theory (Herzberg, 1959) it can be clear that financial rewards satisfaction linked to positivity and job satisfaction. Though, this relation holds the subcategories of contributors only. The satisfaction with psychological rewards linked to job satisfaction and motivation for all. This conclusion suggests that there is necessity for additional research on individual different, job satisfaction, attitude and motivation.   

 

 

 

                                                                                    

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