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The Organizations Workplace Environment Business Essay

The Organizations Workplace Environment Business Essay

13 Nov 2018 23:34

The Organizations Workplace Environment Business Essay

Introduction

Employees are one of the most important aspects in an organization. They are people who run the organization and get the things done for the organization in order to achieve the company’s purposes and objectives. Company consists of teamwork which refers to a group of people with the complementary and difference skills and abilities who committed to a common mission and performance goals. They work in a company for some reasons and based on some motivations.

Motivation theories explain that different people will have different type of motivation regarding to the great diversity and behavior complexity in company nowadays. Many suggestions believe that money is one of the motivations for the workers. However, for the new generation today, money is not the only things that influence them to stay working with an organization. People are trying to seek another advantage from their job and they tend to find inner satisfactions beside the financial satisfactions.

In order to achieve employee’s satisfactions, people often try to find the convenience in the working place. The convenience feeling in complying their responsibility in company plays a critical role. The convenience in working place can be determined by the work environment which is very crucial in supporting, suggesting, and improving the working performance, and also to maintain all of these "valuable assets" of an organization.

Work environment is the surrounding where the employees work that can influence employee’s performance. The positive and healthy work environment can help to increase the employee’s motivation to go to work, increase the job satisfaction and improve organization citizenship behavior, and lead to the affective commitment.

In order to understand the importance of workplace to the job satisfaction so, in this assignment we will analyze the relationship between an organization’s workplace environments and how it can influence the behavior of the employees, which is MindValley company.

Objective

The first objective of this assignment is to determine the factors in organization’s workplace environment. There are a few elements that make up the environment of a workplace such as organizational justice, corporate social responsibilities, training and development, job satisfaction, motivation and decision making. Apart from that, the second objective of this assignment is also to study the relationship between these elements with the organizational behavior.

Company Background

MindValley is an American publishing company that helps creative book writers to publish their work in various digital forms such as mobile applications and membership websites. MindValley is a seven year old Internet Startup that was founded in early 2003 in New York by Mike Reining and Vishen Lakhiani (Jobstreet, n.d.). Michael is an experienced Internet guru graduated from Stanford MBA and had working in Boston Consulting Group in e-commerce department. Apart from being Director of MindValley, Michael was working as strategy maker for Ebay. Meanwhile Vishen Lakhiani experienced working as Director of Sales in the Silicon Valley for Legalmatch.com wwebsite.

The Internet business eventually grew into MindValley a company whose mission was to bring enlightenment and personal growth to the world in a scalable way using a hybrid of marketing and technology (ABAF, 2012). WorldBlu which is a global network organization committed to a democracy and freedom in workplace has listed MindValley into a most democratic workplace for five consecutive years (2008-2012) and making it rank as among the top working places worldwide. Currently, MindValley was successful to attract people from 30 countries and put through a growth and learning process for the employees which are being duplicated by other companies worldwide. Nowadays, Vishen Lakhiani is most sought after speaker and consultant in concern of the art of attracting top talent, growing employees and creating healthy work culture (ABAF, 2012).

In 2005, MindValley launched a research center called MindValley Labs which is used to develop 3 innovative consumer applications. Later, the company establishes MindValley Media, a publisher of leading-edge education on mindfulness practices, alterative health, and entrepreneurship with more than 250,000 students online (About, n.d.). Furthermore, MindValley establishes MindValley Technology. Through this brand the company recently launched a education platform through mobile called Omvana,. The latest brand is MindValley Insight which is a space where the company openly shares its ideas with other businesses and entrepreneurs. In addition, MindValley also establishes a foundation with brand name MindValley Foundation which aims to raise over $1 billion funds in order to support worldwide causes by 2049.

Organization’s Workplace Environment

Organization’s workplace environment is also known as the organization culture. The environment of the workplace influence how the employees feel about their work. Work environment is everything that forms part of employees’ involvement with the work itself. A positive work environment makes employees feel good about coming to work, and this provides the motivation to sustain them throughout the day.

In order to create a more creative and productive work environment that make the employees stay happy and motivated, there are few elements that need to be taken into account. Those elements are organizational justice, corporate social responsibility, training and development, job satisfaction, motivation, work team and group dynamics, communication and decision making.

Those are the set the quality values needed by an organization which will be look upon by the employers and the employees. We will be discussing into details about how MindValley workplace environment influence their employees and how it helps to make them happier, more productive and motivated to work.

4.1 Organizational Justice

MindValley is using the distributive justice in order to promote organizational justice in their company. Distributive justice allowed everyone to be treated fairly and enjoy the same treatments while working in the organization. There are several example of how MindValley promoting organizational justice using distributive justice in their company:

Freedom. Considering that brilliant people hate rules and shackles, and desire the freedom to do their work according to their way, MindValley design an office environment and work style become an enjoyable environment for the employee. The employee is allowed to express their freedom while working in office.

Great People. MindValley attracts brilliant people around the world through working culture, salaries and employee development programs. Currently, it has employee from 28 different countries who working in the company. Therefore, working in MindValley will give great experience for the employee consider to the multicultural employee in the company. In addition, MindValley sets its environment to improve the employee’s life to the new level.

A World Class Company Culture. WorldBlu lists MindValley as most democratic workplace for 4 straight years because MindValley has unique culture. It also aims to create the world greatest workplace for the next few years. MindValley believes that a company culture fuels its growth.

Unusual Perks. MindValley talks profit sharing, annual dinners and parties, design office, monthly social events, mentorship and training programs to employee in order to create extraordinary perks for the employees. The company also gives free ticket to events such as Awesomeness Fest and access to a personal development library. Moreover, the company also has annual retreat to a paradise island for the employee.

Growing Like You Have Never Before. MindValley has working system which called 45/5 Rule. Employee normally works a week is 45 hours. Employees are allowed to spend 5 hours of their time for studying a new skill. MindValley allows its employee to access a massive library of coaching, training material and mentorship from senior employees. World-class entrepreneurs, authors and speakers frequently visit the office as guest speakers for company’s weekly meetings.

Have Fun Like Nobody is Watching. MindValley designs working environment to be fun for the employee such as tasks, team mates and meetings. The purpose of this design is to make its employee looks forward to going work each day.

Giving Back To The Planet. MindValley transform Awesomeness Fest into a non-profit enterprise. The employees have spent significant time to volunteer and works for non-profits. They also give education programs for refuges in South East Asia, funding for schools in Africa and life training skills for orphanages (Oportunidades, n.d.).

Entrepreneurship. MindValley believes that great people dream of starting their own companies (Careers, n.d.). The company helps employees attain this dream by providing training and mentorship to help its employee grow. Simply put, employees are free to learn from MindValley and then move on when the employees are ready to establish their own business. Former employees of MindValley had started various new businesses from website applications, yoga studio, marketing consulting firm, and venture funded dot-coms. Approximately 25% of employee who have been worked in MindValley has become an entrepreneur within 3 years.

4.2 Corporate Social Responsibility

MindValley is an international group of more than 100 individuals from 30 countries, as an international group of visionaries MindValley assures people successfully to be entrepreneurs whom work with passion and pushing humanity forward through culture hacking and also help in revolutionizing the global education system. MindValley was created as a highly ambitioned and ridiculously helps change all of that to help explode the human potential and move the planet forward.

MindValley is taking the new-differently approach by embodying a philosophy "You never change things by fighting and existing reality, to change something, build a new model that makes existing model obsolete", exactly MindValley is applying "culture hacking" the model that they believe it makes today’s problematic models obsolete. Then, what exactly is cultural hacking? It is the art of bringing in technology and education in smart effective ways to rapidly recode the process of an individual behavior in order to make them available to adopt smart practices and then create a good improvement in their life. The descriptions about MindValley above show us how brilliant the idea is. However idea is just can only be words without any proves. So, here we listed some proves of MindValley successful:

MindValley have enrolled about 250,000 students into various online courses and mobile apps on mindfulness practice and also have focused the activities on healthy lifestyles, to hatching the award which initiatively focused on unleashing the youth creativity in entrepreneurship.

In South East Asia MindValley has launched Project Renaissance, which it starts in Kuala Lumpur to inspire and also facilitate youth entrepreneurs in the region and turn Kuala Lumpur into one of top cities in the world to start a dotcom in 10 years.

MindValley has built an online education platform to help people in enjoying the benefits of modern meditation, embrace work-life balance, and become innovative entrepreneurs to spur more economic growth with newest innovations.

In Latin America MindValley launched an online school to teach people in the comfort of their own homes how to become effective freelancers who can accomplish more.

MindValley finally found the heyday by winning the award (featured in Inc. Magazine’s Top 10 World’s Coolest Offices) as cultured-hacked an experiment in designing workspaces for happiness, creativity, and productivity.

MindValley has won WorldBlu’s global award as Most Democratic Workplace for 5 years in a row, and the revenue has soared.

MindValley even culture-hacked and open-sourced own organizational tools and DNA and now share a lot of known with the "competition."

4.3 Training and Development

Human resource is one of the essential internal factors of the company because they can influence and determine whether a company has achieved its goal or not. To improve the ability of human resource in the company, a good strategy of training and development is constructed. Training refers to the process of correcting and improving the skill of the human resource while development is the after process from training to help the human resource increase their work performance in the future with some provisions, for instance the behavioral change and the ability improvement.

MindValley try to increase the capability of the worker individually by providing the training and development program for the employees. The employees can explore and share anything among the colleagues inside the company during public gathering in the hall of Awesomeness every day. In this occasion, the founder and CEO of MindValley, Vishen Lakhiani will give the briefly training to the employee about the personal life, mindset, company, and entrepreneur that is expected can boost the employee’s performance. Beside of that, MindValley has annual program called Awesomeness Fest rather than having an annual strict meeting with the employees. It is an external event to gather the entrepreneur all over the world to speak and share the ideas of the economic growth. The employees itself can discuss and catch the idea from others to help their personal growth

Furthermore, there is some training and development programs are provided by MindValley for the external side, which are:

Project Renaissance. In Southeast Asia, MindValley had launched a program named Project Renaissance with the objectives to inspire, facilitate, and aid the youth entrepreneur in the region.

Online education platform. In the United State, they have built an online education program in order as the assistance to help people understand the modern work culture and work-life balance so that they can grow whether as the innovative employee or entrepreneur.

Online school. MindValley have launched an online school in Latin America. They want to accomplish the goal which is all of the people can do the learning process whenever and wherever they are. The learning process can be in the form of education and job.

4.4 Job satisfaction

Job satisfaction is mean by a pleasure or positive emotional state resulting from the appraisal of one’s job or job experiences. In short, it means whether we satisfied about our job or not. There are five elements of job satisfaction. There is pay, the work itself, promotion opportunities, supervision, and co-workers.

As we know, the salary is the main important things for someone when look for the jobs. But nowadays, there are other necessary factors that affect someone when seek for the job. It is important and the employer should take note so that they satisfy or independent with the jobs that they are doing. However, an individual may hold different attitudes towards various aspects of the job. For example, an employee may like her job responsibilities but be dissatisfied with the opportunities for promotion. Personal characteristics also affect job satisfaction.

It is the same situation in the biggest and well known company, MindValley. They are stressing about their employee’s satisfaction. There are some ways how MindValley makes their employee satisfies about their job through the pay, work itself and co-workers.

In MindValley, apart from the basic salary for each employee, the company will also give bonus equally when the company is gaining profit more than their expectation. For instance, when this year profit expectation is $500,000,000 and they could earn $550,000,000, so the $50,000,000 will be distributed equally to all of the employees. Beside of that, they also have a rating system that allowed the coworkers to rate each other and bonus will be given accordingly to their rating

For the work itself, Mindvalley knows that creative and genius people need space and freedom in order to generate innovative and creative ideas to the organization. Thus, MindValley workspace and office environment was built to adapt with the needs of this creative people. It excites the employees to work every day as the office environment is a daily adventure to them. So MindValley tries to create the work environment that is fun and flexible to the employee so that the employee can enjoy their own work.

For the coworkers, MindValley understand that "A" people attract "A" people. Amazingly, they currently have people from more than 30 different countries working together from the same company. The employee inside the company will able to be socializing with amazing people that will help them to move from their usual life to a whole new level. Because of the diversity in the coworkers, the employees are able to change and discuss their opinion which can help them to build a good relationship inside the company.

It is a fantastic way where the company can see about their worker opinion. Managers and employees in MindValley also hold a common belief that happy or satisfied employees are more productive in their jobs. Most of us will feel more satisfied than usual when we believe that we are performing better than usual. Interestingly, the relationship between job satisfaction and performance is quite a bit more complex than that.

4.5 Motivation

Motivation is very important things in order to make workers happy and feel they are take care by their employer. In MindValley, the employer, Vishnen Lakhiani believes that work needs not only to be educational, but also fun and excitement which will motivates the employees to happily wake up in the morning and go to work. It means every members of the company will feel happy and ready to work every single day. Instead, they get paid to play, create, learn and grow. It’s like being a child again, but with a salary. Over the last few years they’ve won awards and accolades for creating one of the most unique and desirable work cultures in the world (Careers, n.d.).

They want to make an impact to the world. Every employees have the same opportunity and playing their own part in changing the world no matter what their position in the company. MindValley believe in creating the world a happier, wealthier, more enlightened and more loving place. Try to imagine working in an office that looks like a Superhero Headquarters, where we are collaborating with enthusiastic A-players who are passionate, creative and innovative at what they do. We will feel happy and enjoy right? This method is used by MindValley to motivate their workers.

The CEO himself also give direct motivation program to the employee during the meeting so that the employee will feel more commit to the company. In addition Vishen was invited to talk about MindValley at TEDx Ajman. In his presentation, he shared a lot of unique and unconventional values that have made MindValley the company it is today. MindValley is a rapidly-growing organization of over 100 colorful employees, and four-time winner of Most Democratic Workplace. There are many techniques used by the brilliant employer, Vishen Lakhiani in order to attract their wonderful employee that come from various countries and also to motivate them work happily in the company.

First, they create the wonderful, beautiful and tidy offices to make their employees comfortable and enjoy work there. The place is so nice. It makes the employee don’t think about home. They enjoy work with other employee. Besides, there have monthly profits also. 10% of monthly profits get distributed to employees. This way, management goals are tied to employee goals and there is complete alignment at the office. The employees become more motivated to give their contribution to the company.

Furthermore, there are also have Daily Gratitude where his employees created gratitudelog.com so that they can let other employee know about their appreciating to the company. "What you appreciate, you appreciated", it is the elements of their life that they’re thankful for tend to grow. Other than that, there have also Sweet Sugary Love Machine: this way can help employees appreciate and praise their co-workers. Since its launch, office politics and pettiness disappeared. This is almost the same like Daily Gratitude but the employee can appreciated their co-workers. It can make the relationship beautiful. They will know about their co-workers better. They can give motivated to each other.

Not only that, there also have Company Sponsored Fun. Vishen asks his employees to bring two of their smartest friends to the company parties and events. These guests are often hired on as new employees. But actually, MindValley does not invest any of its budgets on recruiting new employees. Moreover, they do Positive Stamina. MindValley always encourages employees to have a mind-set. They can look past things that went wrong and stay focused on their bold new vision of the future. When mistakes happen, they create vision boards or lists to stay focused on the positive. These practices not only help them to stop focusing on the problem, but also to come up with new solutions. It is a good method to motivate their employees.

There are 45/5 Rule in MindValley. The rule means the employees are only allowed to work forty-five hours each week. The five of those forty-five hours must be invested in learning new stuff. The fun thing with this rule is the employees get paid for the five hours too. This rule encourages employee personal growth. Also, MindValley sends a lot of its employees to seminars around the world to improve their skills. To Vishen, workers with enriched minds are better, more productive employees. Thus, this way can attract and motivated their employees to do better in their field.

4.6 Work Team and Group Dynamics

Every company needs to have a good work team to enhance the company’s sustainability in the market place compared to the competitors. Work team refers to a group of employee with different capabilities who work together with the similar or non similar duties. MindValley is one of the companies that have a unique tight team over 100 people from 30 different countries. The work team of MindValley composed of visionaries, poets, authors, ambitious entrepreneurs, mathematicians, web application developers, video artists, and programmers. They collaborate together with one common goal to change the world into a happier, wealthier, more enlightened, and more loving place.

In MindValley, most of the work teams are in informal pattern which means the worker can participate in many different projects that they think they need to be involved. MindValley’s work team is different with the other companies because of not only focusing on the salary but also the work that need to be fun, educational, and growth. There are characteristic of MindValley working system:

Flexibility. MindValley allows the employee to do their job with their own way because many people hate the company which has many rules.

Fun. MindValley believe that business should be fun which can help to encourage people go to work every day. They create an enjoyable working environment to the employee on working their task, communicating with the colleagues, and during the company meetings. But the fun in this case does not mean that the employee is undisciplined.

Inspiration. The other objective of the MindValley is to inspire the other companies from their point-of-view about job. They expect the job can become a desirable want for the employee.

Giving back to the planet. The main goal of MindValley which is to change the world and give the positive impact has guided them to devote their time and attention in volunteering for non-profit events. The employees are able to participate in some charity events, like education program for the refugees in Southeast Asia, funding for school in Africa, and life training skill in orphanages.

The employees have their own tasks depends on their job within collaboratively together in order to do the publishing with the section of merging software, mixed media, video, mobile apps, and social network thus can help the authors to reach the whole world electronically instead of using the traditional media, like hardcover book (ABAF, 2012). The team has their work time start from 9 a.m to 8 p.m. During the working time, the employee can do the job borderless which means they can interact with each other without any strict regulation.

While, group dynamic refers to the system consists of people with different background and behavior. MindValley is included as the company with the high group dynamic in view of the employees is from 30 different countries. To maintain the diversity in the work team, MindValley has the statement of culture hacking. Culture refers to the customary beliefs, social norms, values, and behavior pattern inside a person from the inheritance that distinguishes the groups of people and hack is how the system can be broken down. So culture hacking is the process of breaking down the inheritance pattern from the different group of people.

4.7 Communication

There are two types of communication inside MindValley which are vertical communication and horizontal communication. In vertical communication, it happens between top-down and bottom-up. Top-down communication means the CEO of MindValley give a basic instruction and the purpose of the company that the employees need to do. After that, using the bottom-up communication, the employees can share their idea to the CEO what can be done to achieve the purpose’s goal.

Beside of that, they also apply the horizontal communication among the employee. In the MindValley, the working environment in communication is the employer give the workers freedom to pull their product off the market at any time when they see fit. The employers don’t ask other workers for an exclusive deal. When the workers already publish their work, then they can communicate with other marketers and agencies to leverage this content in other forms of media. MindValley believe that the Freedom Clause gives to the workers authors what every worker deserves in the first place such as work in their own way with the liberty.

MindValley also used the communication in the workplace by host the personal growth event. Every year MindValley will host a variety of events like Awesomeness Fest. This festival held in exotic locations where some of the world’s leading personal growth icons, philanthropists, entrepreneurs and other brilliant minds get together to the network, share ideas and have a ton of fun.

MindValley make the communication with other worker happier, more inspired and more productive workplace with others. Because of that many companies across the world are beginning to emulate. For the past 4 years running, MindValley have made it on WorldBlu List of Most Democratic Workplaces, alongside other forward-thinking companies like Zappos and Groupon. This environment in the MindValley make the employee can improve their atmosphere and increased the productivity benefit employers as well.

4.8 Decision Making

The way of decision making in the MindValley is both of centralized and decentralized. For the centralized decision making, the company relates it to the decision for the whole company (strategic decision). For instance their main focus of decision making is must giving the positive impact on the planet. MindValley products empower people to embrace enlightened lifestyles, and give back to their communities. Besides that, MindValley is keeping the customers happy and that’s where the customer support team will come in. The workers are always being dedicated to delivering an amazing experience for every MindValley customer through an interaction policy that called Heroic Customer Support.

They are not focusing to make decision in the central of company. Each department inside the MindValley will make the decision that related to their work-related problem (tactical decision). It can be in the Finance Department, the employees inside the department can choose and make decision for future planning based on the past financial analysis. So, the employee will work together to achieve the job satisfaction. some characteristics of decision making in MindValley are

Methodical decision maker

MindValley workers used the methodical decision makers. The workers are concerned about how things work organization, rules, and the methods to maintain the quality of work. They also can be too rigid and they’re practical, analytical, conservative, and devour information.

Spontaneous decision

The MindValley workers also make the spontaneous decision. These workers have high-energy and can poised people. Every activity in the MindValley, they very concerned about it. Often, they’re too impatient, flexibility and authenticity. They’re adventure seekers and very responsive and seek individual expression.

Humanistic decision maker

Humanistic decision makers are also in the MindValley. The workers are people-oriented people because they care about the harmony and connections between people in the company. Because of that, sometimes decisions are slow to be made.

Competitive decision

MindValley workers are also competitive when making the decision in workplace. The workers are success-oriented people and independent when doing the work, enthusiastic, and also controlling. Due to these traits, they can be seemed as dominating others and a high risk taker. Before making the decision, they will be very logical, seek competence, set higher goals, have clear visions, and make quick or smart decisions (Eisenberg, 2005). These workers make the MindValley success in the business world.

4.9 Conflict Management Styles

Working in such diversity environment in MindValley, many forms of conflicts can happen. It is important for Vishen to have a good management styles. There are two types of conflict management style that are being used in MindValley which are competing and collaborating.

The first conflict management style that is being used is competing. Vishen encourage competitions among his employees in MindValley. Vishen are often challenging his employees to come up with new and unique ideas. MindValley introduced the "Superhero Desk Badges" program that rewards the most productive employees with superhero model on their desk which rated by their coworkers based on their performance. Competition is also encouraged in MindValley through their "The Bell of Awesomeness" program where every time the employees achieve or break a record in the sales, the bell will automatically ring to celebrate their success.

The second conflict management style that is being used is collaborating. MindValley is an organization that needs their employees to be innovative and creative. Collaborating helps them to get new ideas and solutions to be implemented their products. MindValley encourage collaborating among their employees through the "Team Retreat" program. Apart from helping the employees’ personal growth, "Team Retreat" also encourages the employees to come up with new ideas with the other coworkers.

4.10 Leadership Styles

The MindValley’s leadership style is the "Authentic Leadership" where the employees are supported with heart based-guidance that based on passion and compassion. In MindValley, every employee are trained to be open minded in many activities in the company by exploring, sharing, and proposing their ideas to dig deeper into heir entrepreneur potential.

In MindValley, employee can generate their idea without any cold and strict meeting, and freely improving their personality skills by exchanging their mind, experiences, and idea of the economic growth. MindValley does not focus on money, prestige, or power as the main company object, but they are accustomed to appreciate the meaning and value of working without burdens and pressure. Besides that, relationships among employees or employees and company are very strong because the it supported by the organizational justices of Mindvalley which are unique, flexible, and let their employee to evolve in their accordance with their potentiality.

Conclusion

Different employee will have different type of motivation regarding to the great diversity and behavior complexity in company nowadays. Many suggestions believe that money is one of the motivations for the workers. However, for the new generation today, money is not the only things that influence them to stay working with an organization, but people often try to find the convenience in the working place.

MindValley is one of the companies that apply the highly desirable working environment for the employees. MindValley is not only focusing on the salary but also the work that need to be fun, educational, and growth. They try to promote the openness inside the team which can lead to the company’s overall positive performance.

Inside the MindValley, we can know that the company applies distributive justice to maintain the justice inside their company. They also implement the corporate social responsibility by concerning social issue and investing in the community. MindValley was created as a highly ambitioned and ridiculously helps change all of that to help explode the human potential and move the planet forward. They try to provide the training and development for inside and outside of the company.

To reach the job satisfaction, MindValley tries to make their employee satisfies about their job through the pay, work itself and co-workers. The motivation is given directly either from the CEO or among the employee. For the work team, they are very diverse and having more likely informal work team. In order to communicate the message inside the company, MindValley applies vertical communication and horizontal communication. Whereas for making the tactical decision, they are implementing decentralized and for the strategic decision, they are using the centralized decision making. When the conflict occurs inside the company, MindValley use competing and collaborating conflict management style to solve the problem. The CEO himself, Vishen Lakhiani is authentic leader who try to adapt to different kind of situation.

Based on this assignment, we have learned that it is important to create a positive working environment using the elements that we have discussed and analyzed in this paper. The positive working environment can have the impact both on internal side (inside the person) and external side (organization). For the person itself, the employee can experience a positive personal growth when working in the company, for instance in controlling their emotion at work and creativity toward the work.

While for the organization, the positive working environment can affect the employee’s productivity which can lead to the success of the company. Apart from that, the company can achieve the organization goodwill which means they can have a good image and reputation in society. By positioning the company in society’s mind, it can help the company to expanded easily and finally becoming a good model for creating the organizational culture.

 

Referenceses

UKEssays. November 2013. The Organizations Workplace Environment Business Essay. [online]. Available from: https://www.uniassignment.com/essay-samples/business/the-organizations-workplace-environment-business-essay.php?vref=1 [Accessed 13 November 2018].